As “a major philosophical figure of the Roman Imperial Period”, Seneca’s lasting contribution to philosophy has been to the school of Stoicism. His writing is highly accessible and was the subject of attention from the Renaissance onwards by writers such as Michel de Montaigne. He has been described as “a towering and controversial figure of antiquity” and “the world’s most interesting Stoic”.

Seneca wrote a number of books on Stoicism, mostly on ethics, with one work (Naturales Quaestiones) on the physical world. Seneca built on the writings of many of the earlier Stoics: he often mentions Zeno, Cleanthes, and Chrysippus; and frequently cites Posidonius, with whom Seneca shared an interest in natural phenomena. He frequently quotes Epicurus, especially in his Letters.


Text and figures are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 4.0. The source code is licensed under MIT. The full source is available at

Suggest changes

If you find any mistakes (including typos) or want to suggest changes, please feel free to edit the source file of this page on Github and create a pull request.